Latin American Politics

The Case of Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionares de Colombia (FARC)

Abstract

In this report we studied mainly the brief History of Colombia started from the Conquest Period to Independence Period and Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia. This report consisted of 4 part which are History of Colombia, Reasons Behind the Establishment of FARC, The Changes That FARC Has Created Within The Columbia and Current Political Situation of  FARC. In our Report we can say that the Colombian History is the one of the bloodiest history of the World. There was a lot of Civil Wars, Class Conflicts and unbelievable casualties. There is period which named as a La Violencia and we can understand from that how the citizens of Colombia struggle with all of these difficulties.

 

      History of Colombia

Colombia, officially known as a Republic of Colombia is a South American country. This North-western South American country has coasts both with Pacific Ocean and Carribean Sea. The Republic of Colombia settled among the Panama, Venezuela, Peru, Ecuador and Brazil.[1]

When we look at the Colombia’s history we can say that there is too much significant points for the current situation of Colombia. We can start with the Conquest Period. The exploration of Colombia started with the Rodrigo Bastidas in 1500-1501. He sailed Cape of La Vela to Manzanillo firstly and Conquest period started for Colombia. After Bastidas, Francico Pizarro sailed the Pacific coast of Colombia in 1525. But the most important point of exploration of Colombia was in 1525 with Rodrigo de Bastidas again. Rodrigo de Bastidass who landed firstly to Colombia is explored Santa Marta this once. After Bastidas Pedro de Heredia founded Cartegena in 1533 and the Cartegena became major naval and merchant marine of these years. Bogota which city is the present capital city of Colombia is explored by Gonzalo Jimenez de Queseda in 1538 and after him in 1539 the Conquest Period is completed[2].

After the Conquest Period there is a Colonial Period for Colombia. The Colonial Period of Colombia start with the establishment of Audencia of Santafe de Bogota in 1549. In this Audencia we can see that they included many different Crowns. Their aim was the centralization of Power for ruling this big territory easily. But because of the lack of technology they could not reach their aim as they want. The power was given to Peru Crown which is the south part of Audencia. The economy was mainly based on mining and agriculture in that era. Slavery is integrated to the system for the first time in that geography and during the Audencia period the Church was an effective figure.[3]

After some years later there was little rebellions against the centre power and these rebellions caused to partition. After that the Viceroyalty of New Granada established in 1717 with the cooperation of Panama, Ecuador and Venezuela with the Colombia. But also, this was not so much successful again this royalty divided and there is new country named as a Gran Colombia which includes just Colombia and Panama.[4]

In the early 19th century there was a French invasion of Spain. Because of the captivity of Ferdinand VII who is the Spanish crown is led to rebellions. Because of these rebellions the Revolution and Independence period was started. Because of captivity there was a lack of authority and Simon Bolivar takes power and he became a significant figure for the Independence. After that the liberal and conservative struggle start to rise up. Both the parties could not take the overtower. Year by year the authority passes in other hands. In that years the problem of slavery, the role of church, free trade, class conflict occupy the agenda and also there was a too much civil conflicts during this period. The war of a Thousand Days was a most important one which ended up 60,000 to 130,000 casualties. All of these reasons caused the loss of Panama and present Colombia is occurred.[5]

In the early 1900s there was a struggle over government. During the 30-year period the Colombia was governed by the conservatives. But with the great depression the government lost the presidential election to the liberals. Liberals takes power for 16 years and they implemented new strategies for a better economy. In the 1946 elections there was two liberal candidates. Because of that the liberal vote is split and the conservatives takes power again and La Violencia period is started which is the one of the reasons behind the establishment of FARC.[6]

 

           The Reasons Behind Establishing of FARC

When we look at the reasons behind the establishment of Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC) there is a too much causes we faced. But when we compare to the reasons between themselves, I want to analyse most important 3 main reasons. They are; poverty and inequality of the rural class, assassination of Jorge Eliécer Gaitán and La Violencia period.

  1. Rural Poverty

Firstly, we can start with the Poverty and Inequality of the rural class in Colombia. With this topic we can cover that the difficulties of rural class which are generally in the first half of the 20th century.

In the 1920s there was a gradually little increasing amount of rural people in Colombia. At the beginning of 1930s the rural income level was low and the inequality rate of the rural people’s compare to the other people group also problem in that era. Generally, the rural people were poor and they were farming their own or other’s plantation. Because of the unstable political system in Colombia they are struggle with bad economic conditions during this period. Because Colombia was politically divided to the two part. They are conservatives and liberals. During this period the power of the government, continuously pass in other part’s hands.[7]

Poverty was problem for all Colombia in that era but this issue was on the top level in the Narino, Cauca, Boyaca and Cundinamarca which are long settled departments of Andean Mountain and FARC’s one of the most powerful supporter places. As we can understand that the farming is an occupation that cultural and traditional work for Colombian citizens doing by low social prestige class. There was a discrimination between whites and non-whites, men and women during this period in low prestige class people. We can say that the discrimination of non-whites and women in social life is a reason behind the increasing number of guerrillas of FARC. There is a non-negligible guerrilla amount of black and women people in FARC.[8] When we talk about the poverty, we have to mention to life expectancy. The life expectancy was about 36 in the 1930s in rural areas. Generally, the family income rates of rural worker’s were far below from the Colombia average. In the same time there was not an effective public service for this low prestige rural class. The disease rates were very huge. Year by year the death issues which are caused by insufficient public service increased especially sourced by health services. There was no hospital, security or network infrastructure for the rural people. Their literacy and educational levels were always low related with the inadequate schools. The literacy rate was 35% in 1938, 47% in 1964 which persons 14 years old and up. FARC’s guerrilla structure also consisted of these uneducated people generally which is the rate approximately 80%.[9]

After all, for this part we can say that the inequality and poverty of rural people in Colombia one of the most important reason behind the establishment of FARC. Already the FARC is founded by rural class people. For example, Manuel Marulanda who is the most significant figure for the FARC, he has growed in a peasant and rural family structure. So, all of these negative conditions played an important role. The low prestige class people want to live like others but because of the intentional and unintentional state implementations they could not reach their own imagery. As a result, they are inspired from the Cuban Revolution and they decided to give a struggle with the state for their rights. In the political sphere they cannot reach the success and they try to give a fight with state.[10]

  1. Assassination of Jorge Eliecer Gaitan

Jorge Eliecer Gaitan was a charismatic leader who was born in 1903 in Bogota. His family was a modest lower middle-class family. Because of the financial circumstance of family, he constrained from his formal education till the age of 11. However, he became a lawyer and gone his doctorate in jurisprudence from the Rome, Italy.[11]

Studying in Italy gives him a lot of experience. He learned from Mussolini acting as a populist leader or impressing populations. There were a gradual and peaceful change, balancing class inequalities, land reform, moderating nationalism and swing Marxism and Fascism. He explained himself as a protector of worker class, farmers and the minorities and enemy of the oligarchy. He wants to be a voice of the group of people who had no voice. Also, he was a talented guy especially at the time of speech he was knew the answer that how can I take the support of public. With the help of that he gained popularity. Gaitan takes a lot of duty in his political life. He served as the minister of education and labour, mayor of Bogota, leading to liberal party and candidate for Colombia’s presidency.

When the liberals who explained the Gaitan as a radical and the conservatives saw him as a threat for the elections, they start to give a fight with him. On April 9 1948 he was shot down next to work office of him in Bogota. When the radios start to talk about that the public shows a big reaction and the poor people who saw him as a protector or saviour went berserk and they start to rioting, looting and murdering, just after one day later there were 3,000 dead. Gaitan was murdered by 20-year-old Juan Roa Sierra. Already people wonder that was he assassinate him alone or with the plan of other factors. The officials said that he assassinates him for the rejecting Roa’s job wish. There were some theories about that issue. Gabriel Garcia Marquez wrote in his book ( To live to tell it ) possible murder names as a; conservative leader Mariano Ospina Perez, Liberal rival’s of Gaitan, CIA and Fidel Castro who is the scheduled meeting with him same day.[12]

When we look at the aftermath of Bogotazo issue there were uprisings triggered. The Chulativas which are the police officers appointed for riots they implement some unethical things[13]. Then the FARC’s founder Gaitanista peasant Marulanda took up arms against them and the reasons behind the establishing FARC is raised.[14]

 

  1. The Period of La Violencia

In the Colombia history we cannot see so many military coup or dictatorship when we compare to the other Latin American countries. After the independence of Colombia between 1830s and 1840s, there was two party came to exist which are Liberals and Conservatives. After some civil wars like War of a Thousand Days there was an exhaustion of parties’ and they were decided to peace. But unfortunately, this peace settlement was not a take long time. With the second half of 1940s there was a new period named as a La Violencia (The Violence) in Colombia.[15]

This period starts with the presidential election of 1946. The Liberals was becoming polarized. In the 1946 elections there were two candidates from liberal party. Because of that the Conservatives comeback for the head of government. During the years late 1940s to early 1950s control of government and military was on Conservatives. They also armed the group of peasant people and they turned to paramilitary forces which are created against for the Liberals. When they takes power the Conservatives starts to do new implementations for taking revenge from Liberals and this was a fire for La Violencia.[16] This period’s brutality doubled under the government of Laureano Gomez who wants the Colombia as a Fascist state and because of that the first military coup of Colombia in the 20th century was excessed.[17] The years between 1946 to 1964 in Colombia, there was third most relentless and crucial civil war of Western Hemisphere after comes from the US Civil War and the Mexican Revolution. This civil war caused havoc on 64 percent of Colombian territory and casualty was 260,000 dead and 7 million displaced people. Majority of these victim people were mainly poor people in the countryside. With the beginning of the 1960s the National Front Government founded for establishing peace again. But after some years later this government attacked to another group of peasants with aerial bombing based upon uprisings which were created by these peasant group. These peasant people streamed out of them toward new regions in the east part of Colombia and the northern part of the southern jungles. Because of all these issues the refugees which are forced these implementations thinks that the state as the enemy of us and we have to protect ourselves from this enemy and this idea occurred the armed groups like FARC, ELN and more than this.[18]

 

 

The Changes That FARC Has Created Within The Columbia

At the dates of 1960s and 1970s peasantry support grew higher and higher in Columbia to the organization of FARC. This support rate is approximately 50% of the population. Throughout 1990s FARC had seen the dramatic acceleration in its history because of new popular the neo-liberal policies. In that period paramilitary forces spread over the 60% of the population of the county. By the end of the decade the guerrillas existed within 1,000 municipalities (Livingstone, 2003: 8; see also Ortiz, 2006: 207).

With the beginning of the new century this resistance or rebellion spread over the whole country. After the 2000s the region enters the control over the paramilitary groups. Especially after the 2000s the geography of Ecuador was protected by FARC and not controlled by Columbia.

On the other hand, this rebellion was a well-organized and systemized the structure of the rebellion. Even there is a body called secretariat that has the highest authority of the group, it decides political decisions and tactics. There is also Central High Command that linked to the Secretariat body of the group and consist of seven members. The Central High Command consist of 25 members that situated in seven blocks. (Caribbean, Centre, East, Iván Ríos, Middle Magdalena, South, and Wes)[19]

DATES
ESTIMATED NUMBERS OF THE FARC FRONTS[20]
DATES
ESTIMATED NUMBER OF FARC COMBATANTS[21]
1964 4 1964 1.000
1976 6 1965 2.000
1979 9 1966 2.500
1980 11 1970 2.700
1883 22 1978 3.000
1985 30 1983 3.400
1987 31 1985 3.500
1989 41 1986 3.800
1990 47 1987 4.000
1992 59 1991 7.500
1994 79 1996 14.000
1999 103 2000 21.000
2004 112 2001 24.000
2008 79 2004 29.000
2008 36.000

 

State authorities declared that the number of the fighters declined significantly after 2008. The aim of the states’ declaration was to increase the trust of people to the state and to give message to its public that state is not securitized anymore. It is true that state started a war against the FARC but this war did not decrease the number of the combatants of the FARC. They were still continuing recruitment. That might be true that the number of the combatants were changed but there was no reduction in the number of the FARC militants. State only want to persuade public that they are giving was against the FARC. The media and Columbian State give numbers about the weakened FARC. In 2008 two of the well-known leaders of the rebellion were killed.

Recently counterinsurgency movement against the FARC increased and declared victories against FARC. After campaign started state authorities declared that FARC lost 70% of their ammunitions and with claimed that 150 combatants remained that supports FARC.[22] After that a series of attacks to the oil resources of Columbia started. Between April 29 and May 6 Columbia’s largest oil pipeline approximately 3.000.000 barrels of oil was attacked. The rebellions destructed the important transportation routes for military and oil transportation.[23] After that FARC wanted to Show of strength and continued to its attacks with coal mines of Columbia. In that period state tries to Show that state is safer than the before but state officials are not very successful in this policy.

 

FARC in Publics’ Eye 

The FARC has been seen an increasing support and applauded for authenticate the ideological roots of the revolution, with Marti and Bolivar, because of that always found support along continent.[24] FARC maintained the Marxist-Leninist roots, and called a fundamentally offensive guerrilla movement.[25]

Evaluation of Support of Civilians to the FARC

Marx and Engels say that a revolution has to be supported by the most exploited group that is under the authority of present political economic system. In 1966, FARC was very aware of that the movement of guerrilla could not able to continue the revolution without the backing of the public.[26] So guerrilla movement had seen support in Latin America in 1960s from peasants and some other groups. Within the peace negotiations period in 2000s, thousands of peasants, indigenous groups, were transported to the FARC-controlled areas. (Felbab-Brown, 2005: 109)[27]

With the involvement of USA military to the Columbia, thousands of people displaced and that created very dramatic effects for FARC. So, with the supportive side’s displacement the FARC support very fragmented and very difficult to make calculation. Guerrilla movement could not stand up without the help of local people. We had seen the example of this with the death of Che Guevara.[28]

 

CURRENT POLİTİCAL SITUATION OF FARC

[29]

When the dates Show 2010s, with the Uribe’s government Columbian military was approximately 283,000 and police forces were around 160.000. Also, government reshaped the command structure in military and supplied new equipments and new kind of trainings with the support of the USA as a part of Plan Columbia.[30]

The negotiations with the FARC started with the both sides acceptance of bilateral ceasefire, and demilitarized zone was founded in a municipality at the date of 1984. And the ceasefire lasted only 3 years. After 1985 FARC declared that they would be establish a political party. And gave the public that idea FARC could bring some brilliant ideas into the political sphere. And FARC won local and national seats. After a while some opposition parties declared that FARC consist of paramilitaries and drug traffickers. Later FARC member killed all of the opposition side approximately 3.000 members of the opposition party and withdrew from political sphere.[31]

Peace Process Under the Santos Administration

A series of reform pockets launched by President Santos and he achieved some victories over FARC. In 2012, President Santos announced that a secret peace talks with FARC happened in Cuba. As a consequence, the FARC authority and the Columbian Government agreed a peace talks in Norway in 2012.[32] Also President Santos declared that the mistakes that have done before that caused the end of negotiations would not be happened again. Main aim of the talks is to end the conflict. Columbian government will not give up any territory or back up its operations against paramilitary groups. ELN, that is the second largest rebellion paramilitary group in Columbia had accepted into go to the negotiation process.[33]

Unilateral Ceasefires in 2013

The violence increased during that year and both state forces and FARC forces are suffering with lots of casualties. The aim of the FARC is the infrastructure. Peace talk continued without any ceasefire by both sides. Santos government do not back up the vow that is to end FARC. Even if FARC declare ceasefire by unilaterally, they do not even follow their ceasefire declaration. The aim of the peace talks is that “nothing is agreed until everything is agreed”.[34]

They reached an agreement in November 2014. Most of the supporters of the FARC peasantry- based ones so if state want to reach a peace agreement, state must support to the peasantry. State would redistribute of farms via land bank (the Land for Peace Fund) and give support to the ownership.[35]

 

 

 

DATE THE NUMBER OF VICTIMS
1985 24.883
1988 54.565
1990 64.777
1994 86.837
1996 181.816
1997 300.335
2000 680.613
2001 745.745
2002 861.864
2003 536.906
2008 459.105
2009 275.907
2015 192.164
2017 70.921

[36]

The government tried to find out to find the roots of the conflict. Six solution point were made by both sides to solve the conflict:

  • Rural Reform: Both sides agreed on to decrease poverty, that caused the conflict, in rural parts of the country.
  • Political Participation: FARC is a Marxist organization. In this part, parties agreed a participation of FARC to the free and fair elections and supporters of the FARC will not be tortured by the state forces.
  • Illicit Drugs: The main income of the FARC supplied from coca. So, state will interfere into the drug trafficking and wanted to finish it.
  • Victims: According to the UN data, conflict in Columbia created 7 million victims. To help the victims a Victim Fund and a Land Fund were established to supply land to small farmers who obliged to displace during the conflict.
  • End of Conflict: Two sides agreed on to the disarmament of the FARC and both sides declared a ceasefire to end the conflict.
  • Implementation: Columbian government would ask the public as a referendum whether to accept the conditions with FARC or not. If the referendum accepted by the public the disarmament of the FARC will begin. Government will also help the militants’ of reintegration into the public.

 

CONCLUSION

To conclude when we search on the reasons of emergence of FARC, we see that there is not just one factors behind it. But these three reasons which are Rural Poverty, Assassination of Gaitan and The Period of La Violencia main subjects of that issue. Their history was full of violence.

In the history of Colombia conflict is an inevitable incident. After the 17th century killing somebody has seen very normal in Columbia. Sometimes a strong government or leader comes to power and the country turns back to normal but after a while a terrorist organization or paramilitary groups emerges out and suddenly the country turns back to the hell. In this conflict military plays a number one role. If military do not want the political leader the reason was coups. However, Columbia has overcome these conflicting issues. The most dangerous terrorist organization in Columbia was FARC and now the Columbian government tries to handle this issue with negotiation process.

With the political participation of the FARC some groups take position against the government because they claim that FARC is a murderer terrorist organization. Most of the Columbians hate from FARC. Mr. Villarraga, the director of the democracy centre, said he hoped Colombians would overcome their anger toward leaders like Mr. Londoño, political representative of FARC, and defended his right to campaign.

After the deaths of thousands of people and thousands were kidnapped and millions of people forced for migration. Columbians want nothing from guerrillas even if peace is promised by the FARC sides.

 

 

Written by: Oğuz Şahin and Resul Avşar

 

 

References

Berry, Albert. «Rural Poverty in Twentieth-Century Colombia.» Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, 355-357.

Britannica. tarih yok. https://www.britannica.com/place/Colombia/Sports-and-recreation#ref25332 (Accessed on: May 01, 2018).

LeGrand, Catherine C. «The Colombian Crisis in Historical Perspective.» Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies, 170-173.

ThoughtCo. tarih yok. https://www.thoughtco.com/the-bogotazo-april-9-1948-2136619 (Accessed on: May 03, 2018).

Uribe, Maria Victoria. «Terror in the Antipodes: Sri Lanka and Colombia.» Historical Memory Group, 2.

James J. Brittain and James Petras, Revolutionary Social Change in Colombia(First published 2010 by Pluto Press), The Origin and Direction of the FARC-EP, 16-42

 

Number of FARC-EP fronts in Colombia Sources: Bristow, 2008; The Current, 2008; Ahmad, 2006: 43; Sánchez, 2003: 15; Murillo and Avirama, 2003: 70; Rochlin, 2003: 99; Scheina, 2003: 271; Richani, 2002a: 76; Crandall, 1999: 226; Petras, 1999: 31; Pearce, 1990a: 167, 173, 281; Osterling, 1989: 266; Ruhl, 1981: 138; and information obtained through observational research

 

Allende La Paz (2004) “¿Por qué se meten a la guerrilla?” October 4 [online] http:// www.anncol.org/side/421 (accessed October 4, 2004).

 

For additional information about the 2012-2014 peace negotiations between the Colombian government and the FARC, see the annotated timeline provided at http://thisisadamsblog.com, which tracks all peace process-related events in English. The information is posted by Adam Isacson, Senior Associate for Regional Security Policy at the Washington Office on Latin America.

 

“Colombia and the FARC: Talking about Talks,” Economist, September 1, 2012; Andrea Peña, “Colombian President Confirms Dialogue Has Been Opened with the FARC,” El Pais, August 30, 2012.

 

Virginia Bouvier, “Agreement Reached on Rural Reforms,” Colombia Calls, May 27, 2013, at https://vbouvier.wordpress.com/2013/05/27/agreement-reached-on-rural-reforms; Grant Hurst, “Colombian Peace Talks Reach First Accord,” IHS Global Insight Daily Analysis, May 27, 2013; Sibylla Brodzinsky, “Farc Peace Talks: Colombia Unveils Major Breakthrough,” The Guardian, May 28, 2013; Carmen-Cristina Cirlig, “Colombia: New Momentum for Peace,” Library Briefing, Library of the European Parliament, July 15, 2013.

 

https://colombiareports.com/colombia-peace-talks-fact-sheet/

 

– June S. Beittel, “Peace Talks İn Colombia” in Current Politics and Economics Of South And Central America (Hauppauge: 2012)

 

 

 

[1] Britannica, https://www.britannica.com/place/Colombia/Sports-and-recreation#ref25332 ( Accessed on 01 May 2018)

[2] Britannica

[3] Britannica

[4] Britannica, https://www.britannica.com/place/Colombia/Sports-and-recreation#ref25332 ( Accessed on 01 May 2018)

[5]Britannica,  https://www.britannica.com/place/Colombia/Revolution-and-independence ( Accessed on 02 May 2018)

[6] Britannica

[7] Albert Berry, ‘’Rural Poverty in Twentieth-Century Colombia’’, Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs vol. 20, no. 4 (Nov., 1978), 355

[8] Albert Berry, ‘’Rural Poverty’’ 355

[9] Albert Berry, ‘’Rural Poverty’’ 356

[10] Albert Berry, ‘’Rural Poverty’’ 357

[11] ThoughtCo, https://www.thoughtco.com/the-bogotazo-april-9-1948-2136619 ( Accessed on 03 May 2018 )

[12] ThoughtCo

[13] María Victoria Uribe, ‘’Terror in the Antipodes: Sri Lanka and Colombia’’, Grupo de Memoria Histórica, Colombia (Historical Memory Group, Colombia) 2

[14] ThoughtCo

[15] Catherine C. LeGrand, ‘’The Colombian Crisis in Historical Perspective’’ Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caibbean Studies 170

[16] LeGrand, ‘’The Colombian Crisis’’ 171

[17] Britannica

[18] LeGrand, ‘’The Colombian Crisis’’ 173

[19] James J. Brittain and James Petras, Revolutionary Social Change in Colombia(First published 2010 by Pluto Press), The Origin and Direction of the FARC-EP, 16-42

[20] Number of FARC-EP fronts in Colombia Sources: Bristow, 2008; The Current, 2008; Ahmad, 2006: 43; Sánchez, 2003: 15; Murillo and Avirama, 2003: 70; Rochlin, 2003: 99; Scheina, 2003: 271; Richani, 2002a: 76; Crandall, 1999: 226; Petras, 1999: 31; Pearce, 1990a: 167, 173, 281; Osterling, 1989: 266; Ruhl, 1981: 138; and information obtained through observational research

[21] Number of FARC-EP combatants in Colombia Sources: Delgado, 2008; Delgado and Romero, 2007: 9; Wilson and Carroll, 2007: 91; SchulteBockholt, 2006: 141n.15; Goff, 2004: 44; Vieira, 2004b; Sánchez, 2003: 15; Kirk, 2003: 218; Rochlin, 2003: 99, 137, 165n.8; Crandall, 2008: 53–4, 74; Richani, 2002a: 76; 2001: 53–4, 74n.33; Alejandro and Billon, 1999; FARC-EP, 1999: 17; Osterling, 1989: 266, 294; Gunther, 1966: 443

[22] FARC-EP, 1999: 24; Premo, 1988: 243n.45; Ruhl, 1980: 196, 205n.63

[23] James J. Brittain and James Petras, Revolutionary Social Change in Colombia, 17-18

[24] James J. Brittain and James Petras, Revolutionary Social Change in Colombia, 25

[25] (FARC-EP, 1999: 26)

[26] (Pomeroy, 1968: 312)

[27] (Felbab-Brown, 2005: 109)

[28] (Ryan, 1998; see also Salmón, 1990; Harris, 1970)

[29] Beittel, June S., Peace Talks in Colombia, March 31, 2015, Congressional Research Service

[30] Colombia: Peace at Last?

[31] Beittel, June S., Peace Talks in Colombia, March 31, 2015, Congressional Research Service

[32] For additional information about the 2012-2014 peace negotiations between the Colombian government and the FARC, see the annotated timeline provided at http://thisisadamsblog.com, which tracks all peace process-related events in English. The information is posted by Adam Isacson, Senior Associate for Regional Security Policy at the Washington Office on Latin America.

[33] “Colombia and the FARC: Talking about Talks,” Economist, September 1, 2012; Andrea Peña, “Colombian President Confirms Dialogue Has Been Opened with the FARC,” El Pais, August 30, 2012.

[34] Beittel, June S., Peace Talks in Colombia, March 31, 2015, Congressional Research Service

[35] Virginia Bouvier, “Agreement Reached on Rural Reforms,” Colombia Calls, May 27, 2013, at https://vbouvier.wordpress.com/2013/05/27/agreement-reached-on-rural-reforms; Grant Hurst, “Colombian Peace Talks Reach First Accord,” IHS Global Insight Daily Analysis, May 27, 2013; Sibylla Brodzinsky, “Farc Peace Talks: Colombia Unveils Major Breakthrough,” The Guardian, May 28, 2013; Carmen-Cristina Cirlig, “Colombia: New Momentum for Peace,” Library Briefing, Library of the European Parliament, July 15, 2013.

[36] https://colombiareports.com/colombia-peace-talks-fact-sheet/

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