The world has become a smaller place thanks to the great developments in technology, transport and communications. These changes have led to significant changes in human and world factors. The developments have caused changes in economic, political and sociological dynamics. The only thing that doesn’t change is the change itself which has emerged in the new world order. The growth of world trade and global economy in the last century is the most prominent aspect of globalization. In the world economy since the 1970s, unemployment and poverty have started to increase. From an ideological point of view, it is seen that cultural differences are lost and a common culture begins to emerge.
View point of Japan Society
According to Tamotsu Aoki, Japan is affected from globalization in lots of specific area such as business, lifestyles as well as food and clothing. His work has shown that Japan has been affected by globalization as a particular form (Aoki, 68;2003).
Food and globalization are two factors that have continued in parallel with each other. We can see this with McDonald’s culture, which begins to spread all over the world at a time. The purpose of this food culture is to offer fast, cheap and delicious food.
In Japan, fast food culture began to spread after 1970s. Since the 1970s, McDonald’s has dominated the market. KFC is second in the market with 1980s.
When McDonald’s first entered the market, he started offering new dishes under the name of “new western culture“. However, the Japanese people did not want to eat the food of western culture. On top of that McDonald’s implemented a new strategy. Rice and fish, which are the basis of Japanese culture, became the main ingredient of fast food.
We can clearly say that there seems to be a single world culture that has been disrupted by globalization. If we thought that the world would consist of a single culture, then we would expect the Japanese people to accept American-based fast food. But something went wrong here, and McDonald’s started to serve Japanese ingredients.
We even see it in other countries. For example, in the Arab states we can see the “McArabia” menu, something like pita. McDonald’s new strategy is to sell its product while serving local tastes.
To access food to a new country is exchanged and domesticated by local culture. However, there are no unilateral processes. New foods can change consumer culture.
Together with globalization, not only the food culture does not change, but also all social areas are affected by globalization such as clothing and fashion. We can see it especially in the field of business. In Japan, according to Tamotsu Aoki, Asian countries became a market for Japanese economy because they liked Japanese products (Aoki, 76;2003).
As an example, we can mention about the “Shiseido” that our author gave us. Shiseido is a company established as a pharmaceutical company and now manufactures products as cosmetics. This company also supports its products with Oriental medical supplements. In other words, it has achieved a hybrid mixture in the cosmetics sector. But what is surprising here is that this company dominates the cosmetic industry not only in Asia but also throughout Europe. It sells its products to fifty-nine countries.
As a result, the fact that globalization is seen as a homogeneous cultural structure results from the mutual interaction between different identities. But in Japan case, homogenization is not exalted, but it has developed in dynamic social patterns, as we can see that is multi polarity.
Globalization of Turkey in the new century
Turkey is highly affected by the dimensions of globalization compared to many countries in the world because of its geographical strategic position. The reason, Turkey is one of the most affected countries. Because it differs widely from the culture and human communities it has within its borders.
Especially after the 2000s, we felt that more. I think one of the most important factors here is the neoliberal policies implemented with Turgut Özal period. Turkey’s globalization process has also accelerated, as it will provide economic freedom, easier entry and exit to the market.
Of course, it’s not just a Western policy. Especially in the new century, there was a sphere where there was a more political basis for Islamic rule and thus, we could see the cultural forms of the East.
In my opinion, Turkey is a bridge between the East and the West because of its geographical position. This task accelerates the process of globalization on the world. At the same time, Turkey was the fastest affected country in this process. With the process of becoming a candidate for the European Union, we see that Turkey’s key institutions have also changed. We see that law, health and education institutions are beginning to resemble European countries in terms of adaptation to Europe.
We can see a lot of changes in the social field. Especially the structure of the family institution is constantly changing. Child birth rates are falling. The position of the woman in work life is increasing. Therefore, the Turkish society, which historically has a patriarchal society, faces the changes brought about by globalization. The increase in migration as a result of urbanization has caused the cities to be overcrowded. This situation has caused traffic and distorted urbanization problems especially in big cities such as Istanbul and Ankara.
When we look at the view-point of economic aspect, throughout 1990s, Islamic capitalism was increasing (Ozbudun&Keyman,302;2003). Here we can give MUSIAD foundation as an example. This organization, based in the Anatolian cities, can be seen more in the Islamic view. It has received more support from the state because of an Islamic perspective. It can be said that it has increased our cooperation with the Islamic countries as globalization. TUSIAD is an Istanbul based organization. However, it is seen as acting differently from the state. Especially this situation was seen in the 2009 crisis. In some cases, this situation has caused the deterioration of the state and TUSIAD. The state started to make agreements with MUSIAD instead of TUSIAD.
I think the issue that developing countries such as Turkey should consider here is that while adapting to globalization, if cultural norms are not taken into consideration, these countries will be in a big threat.
If we want the best adaptation of globalization in Turkey, it will be the most important step for our political institutions to keep up with it. Taking into account our cultural background and our national future, new institutions must be built. In time, this will lead to the reproduction of society. Otherwise, Turkish society will find itself under an hegemony of both the East and the West.
Vanguard of the Globalization and Consequences
We can now see the few brands that dominate the market where there are many different brands around us. For example; Coca-Cola, McDonald’s, Nike, Visa Card etc. There are brands that influence all areas. We buy these brands when we buy something. These brands, which are especially imposed on us with the media, reach us with well-structured marketing techniques done by the vendors. Each side is full of advertising. Where we turn our heads, we encounter an ad.
When the Europeans occupied America, they brought with them capitalist ideology. So, this ideology is not America’s, but Europe’s. Because if this ideology went out of Europe and spread to them all over the world, then this term stems from the Europeans. However, there is a fact that American capitalism now dominates the world.
Especially after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the return to a bipolar world led to the spread of capitalism throughout the world. Capitalist administrations used the argument of globalization and liberalization to enter markets in other countries.
According to J. Hunter and J. Yates, the vanguards of capitalism use the key institutions of global trade and global economy (Hunter&Yates,327;2003). We all know that somehow. Especially the IMF, the World Bank and the World Trade Organization are used by countries that want to spread capitalism and want to enter the markets of other countries especially USA and European countries.
Now we can see that the consequences of capitalism are really bad. Because many problems have emerged such as inequality, imbalance of resource distribution, stratification, gender inequality, lack of access to resources. It is understood from this point that all of these problems have revealed that capitalism is a system which is no longer necessary to question.
While globalization is good only for capitalists, it does not provide benefits for the rest of the world. Yes, in some areas such as education, health and transportation are reflected in every segment of society. However, it is not possible for everyone to reach them. For example, Angelina Julie could be operated immediately against the risk of breast cancer, but not all people can reach it. Because this operation requires a lot of cost. Everyone can’t afford to pay that money. While the minority has most of the income, the majority are struggling to survive.
Many Globalizations: Cultural Diversity in the Contemporary World – Peter L. Berger and Samuel P. Huntington