Urbanization, industrialization and economic development in parallel with the growth of Metropolitan cities as a result of the organizations, the division of Labor and specialization increase, the process of emergence of specific changes in human behavior and relationships to the cities. This process each city, depending on the socio-economic situation in this regard is effective.
A very rapid period of urbanization development, the city allows for the emergence of new investments. Transportation, health, education, infrastructure, rural-urban migration accelerates more. In this way, raise the standards of living in the city. The development of the health sector, the mortality rate is decreasing.
This urban social architecture rests on an intertwined set of economic and political processes of a decreasing contribution of the industrial sector to the overall economy, and the movement of industrial production to small-scale specialized units. Hence, we witness a significant decrease in the size of organized labor, increasing rates of unemployment, part-time, seasonal, sporadic, and informal labor, and new forms of poverty that these changes have produced.
However, urbanization causes big problems. Carrying a lot of currently unknown problems which may arise in the future. The biggest of these problems is seen as urban sprawl. Urban sprawl, lead to an increase in crime, but also lead to an ongoing conflict between the poor and the rich. Although urbanization has the potential to make cities more prosperous and countries more developed, many cities all over the world are grossly unprepared for the multidimensional challenges associated with urbanization. Generally, urbanization has relied on a model that is unsustainable in many respects. The increase of people in the city, the factories, the increasing number of very intense use the vehicle in a way that causes air pollution. Air pollution over time can lead to major diseases.
Due to advancing technology, excessive noise, traffic jams and a busy work life, affecting normal life badly. People are put into more stress and deteriorating relations with other people. Cities, rural-urban migration is a lot of because it leads to the emergence of numerous and the problem keep getting. The experience of migration brings with it the problems of unemployment. The rapid escalation of mechanization, has reduced the dependence on human power. People has to work in very low paid jobs in order to survive. A lot of them don’t have health insurance. As a result of urbanization, public transport is inadequate. Inadequate public transport has given rise to the expansion of private transport. The increase of private cars, parking give rise to the problem. However, we should definitely mention one of the most important problems with the increase of highways and link roads, the emergence of new settlements. Done miles each way, resulted in the formation of a new country. This centre-periphery in terms of the relationship has made it harder for the service of the municipality. At the same time, new roads, resulted in the slaughter of nature and forests. Endangering the lives of thousands of living creatures in nature.
A more empowered metropolitan government, and state-funded mass housing initiatives, help Istanbul inch towards a more sustainable approach to its spatial growth. The ideas for a managed poly-centric city with sub-centers unlocked by infrastructure investment are now familiar although not always followed. In this paper my primary goal is to bring solutions to these problems. Now we can focus on these solutions. One of the biggest problems, of course, unplanned urbanization. Urban transformation projects to deliver the greatest solution that can be brought to urban sprawl. TOKİ offers urban transformation projects in Turkey. However, here the most important point that need to be addressed TOKİ want to hold on to the time of the market. If we were to bring this solution to other companies in the business by entering into the competition should increase. Especially Toki, law and legal issues, even where reveals himself as superior in this area in which the project itself is to be conducted decide. This made rigging the tenders on state land has brought problems and corruption.
Nepotism came to a visible level, and administrators had the luxury of being able to give the land that wants what they want. With the spread of the road, several settlements have emerged. This lack of infrastructure has revealed. Rural settlements electricity, water and roads to services such as reached too late. Still, these issues continue as a problem. To own a private vehicle because it has caused massive traffic problems, promotion of public transport and privileged needs to be brought to the location. For example in Sancaktepe, ten years ago, the rural settlement, a separate settlement from Istanbul, currently is emerging as. However, Sancaktepe from the center of Istanbul to come to a big problem. Transport takes approximately one and a half hours. Of way unless public transport and Metro systems are developed the problem will continue. If that is the problem, we need to solve the other one, is related to the irregular dissolution of the industrial districts within the city. Istanbul industrial zones scattered in the stands, and to be held in Istanbul this is the biggest betrayal.
The city Ibn Khaldun’s analysis is the greatest solution to the ear hook. Industrial zones in Istanbul, one on both sides, and afterwards the settlements and the industry will be in the middle of the bureaucracy will be formed. The most important solution to the problem of urbanization is to stop migration from the rural to the city. Rural-urban migration in order to stop agricultural policies should be carried out. If it is not supported in production agriculture and the countryside to the city migration will continue. Import-based economy should be limited, production-based economy should be instituted. Extremely cementation in the city and must be stopped. Each construction area, some new people to live there. So, restrictions are increasingly cautious in the construction sector and planned projects should be done. In this way, short-term crisis situations will be prevented.
Urbanization policy for the solution of urban problems and the determination of resources to be distributed in a responsible manner is essential. Real solutions to the problems of urbanization and development in underdeveloped countries the level of developed countries is possible with the regional plan for purposes of transportation. At this point, citizens in terms of local autonomy and the development of democracy should be accorded the right to participate in the construction of their plan.
- Kolluoğlu B., Candan A. (2008) “Emerging Spaces of Neoliberalism: A Gated Town and A Public Housing Project in İstanbul”
- Ki-moon B., Clos J. (2016) “Urbanization and Development:Emerging Futures”, Retrieved from https://unhabitat.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/WCR-%20Full-Report-2016.pdf
- Clark G., Moonen T. (2015) “The Density Dividend: solutions for growing and shrinking cities” Retrieved from http://europe.uli.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/ULI-Documents/The-Density-Dividend-Istanbul-case-studyFINAL.pdf